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Apache > HTTP Server > Documentation > Version 2.2 > Modules

Apache Module mod_ssl

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Description:Strong cryptography using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols
Status:Extension
Module Identifier:ssl_module
Source File:mod_ssl.c

Summary

This module provides SSL v2/v3 and TLS v1 support for the Apache HTTP Server. It was contributed by Ralf S. Engeschall based on his mod_ssl project and originally derived from work by Ben Laurie.

This module relies on OpenSSL to provide the cryptography engine.

Further details, discussion, and examples are provided in the SSL documentation.

Topics

Directives

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Environment Variables

This module can be configured to provide several items of SSL information as additional environment variables to the SSI and CGI namespace. This information is not provided by default for performance reasons. (See SSLOptions StdEnvVars, below.) The generated variables are listed in the table below. For backward compatibility the information can be made available under different names, too. Look in the Compatibility chapter for details on the compatibility variables.

Variable Name: Value Type: Description:
HTTPS flag HTTPS is being used.
SSL_PROTOCOL string The SSL protocol version (SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1.1, TLSv1.2)
SSL_SESSION_ID string The hex-encoded SSL session id
SSL_CIPHER string The cipher specification name
SSL_CIPHER_EXPORT string true if cipher is an export cipher
SSL_CIPHER_USEKEYSIZE number Number of cipher bits (actually used)
SSL_CIPHER_ALGKEYSIZE number Number of cipher bits (possible)
SSL_COMPRESS_METHOD string SSL compression method negotiated
SSL_VERSION_INTERFACE string The mod_ssl program version
SSL_VERSION_LIBRARY string The OpenSSL program version
SSL_CLIENT_M_VERSION string The version of the client certificate
SSL_CLIENT_M_SERIAL string The serial of the client certificate
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN string Subject DN in client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_x509 string Component of client's Subject DN
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN string Issuer DN of client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_x509 string Component of client's Issuer DN
SSL_CLIENT_V_START string Validity of client's certificate (start time)
SSL_CLIENT_V_END string Validity of client's certificate (end time)
SSL_CLIENT_V_REMAIN string Number of days until client's certificate expires
SSL_CLIENT_A_SIG string Algorithm used for the signature of client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_A_KEY string Algorithm used for the public key of client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_CERT string PEM-encoded client certificate
SSL_CLIENT_CERT_CHAIN_n string PEM-encoded certificates in client certificate chain
SSL_CLIENT_VERIFY string NONE, SUCCESS, GENEROUS or FAILED:reason
SSL_SERVER_M_VERSION string The version of the server certificate
SSL_SERVER_M_SERIAL string The serial of the server certificate
SSL_SERVER_S_DN string Subject DN in server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_S_DN_x509 string Component of server's Subject DN
SSL_SERVER_I_DN string Issuer DN of server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_I_DN_x509 string Component of server's Issuer DN
SSL_SERVER_V_START string Validity of server's certificate (start time)
SSL_SERVER_V_END string Validity of server's certificate (end time)
SSL_SERVER_A_SIG string Algorithm used for the signature of server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_A_KEY string Algorithm used for the public key of server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_CERT string PEM-encoded server certificate
SSL_TLS_SNI string Contents of the SNI TLS extension (if supplied with ClientHello)

x509 specifies a component of an X.509 DN; one of C,ST,L,O,OU,CN,T,I,G,S,D,UID,Email. In Apache 2.1 and later, x509 may also include a numeric _n suffix. If the DN in question contains multiple attributes of the same name, this suffix is used as an index to select a particular attribute. For example, where the server certificate subject DN included two OU fields, SSL_SERVER_S_DN_OU_0 and SSL_SERVER_S_DN_OU_1 could be used to reference each.

SSL_CLIENT_V_REMAIN is only available in version 2.1 and later.

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Custom Log Formats

When mod_ssl is built into Apache or at least loaded (under DSO situation) additional functions exist for the Custom Log Format of mod_log_config. First there is an additional ``%{varname}x'' eXtension format function which can be used to expand any variables provided by any module, especially those provided by mod_ssl which can you find in the above table.

For backward compatibility there is additionally a special ``%{name}c'' cryptography format function provided. Information about this function is provided in the Compatibility chapter.

Example

CustomLog logs/ssl_request_log \ "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"

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SSLCACertificateFile Directive

Description:File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Client Auth
Syntax:SSLCACertificateFile file-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CA) whose clients you deal with. These are used for Client Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded Certificate files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLCACertificatePath.

Example

SSLCACertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle-client.crt

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SSLCACertificatePath Directive

Description:Directory of PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Client Auth
Syntax:SSLCACertificatePath directory-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose clients you deal with. These are used to verify the client certificate on Client Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you can't just place the Certificate files there: you also have to create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links.

Example

SSLCACertificatePath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/

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SSLCADNRequestFile Directive

Description:File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA Certificates for defining acceptable CA names
Syntax:SSLCADNRequestFile file-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

When a client certificate is requested by mod_ssl, a list of acceptable Certificate Authority names is sent to the client in the SSL handshake. These CA names can be used by the client to select an appropriate client certificate out of those it has available.

If neither of the directives SSLCADNRequestPath or SSLCADNRequestFile are given, then the set of acceptable CA names sent to the client is the names of all the CA certificates given by the SSLCACertificateFile and SSLCACertificatePath directives; in other words, the names of the CAs which will actually be used to verify the client certificate.

In some circumstances, it is useful to be able to send a set of acceptable CA names which differs from the actual CAs used to verify the client certificate - for example, if the client certificates are signed by intermediate CAs. In such cases, SSLCADNRequestPath and/or SSLCADNRequestFile can be used; the acceptable CA names are then taken from the complete set of certificates in the directory and/or file specified by this pair of directives.

SSLCADNRequestFile must specify an all-in-one file containing a concatenation of PEM-encoded CA certificates.

Example

SSLCADNRequestFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ca-names.crt

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SSLCADNRequestPath Directive

Description:Directory of PEM-encoded CA Certificates for defining acceptable CA names
Syntax:SSLCADNRequestPath directory-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This optional directive can be used to specify the set of acceptable CA names which will be sent to the client when a client certificate is requested. See the SSLCADNRequestFile directive for more details.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you can't just place the Certificate files there: you also have to create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links.

Example

SSLCADNRequestPath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ca-names.crt/

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SSLCARevocationFile Directive

Description:File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Client Auth
Syntax:SSLCARevocationFile file-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CA) whose clients you deal with. These are used for Client Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded CRL files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLCARevocationPath.

Example

SSLCARevocationFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/ca-bundle-client.crl

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SSLCARevocationPath Directive

Description:Directory of PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Client Auth
Syntax:SSLCARevocationPath directory-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose clients you deal with. These are used to revoke the client certificate on Client Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you have not only to place the CRL files there. Additionally you have to create symbolic links named hash-value.rN. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links.

Example

SSLCARevocationPath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/

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SSLCertificateChainFile Directive

Description:File of PEM-encoded Server CA Certificates
Syntax:SSLCertificateChainFile file-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the optional all-in-one file where you can assemble the certificates of Certification Authorities (CA) which form the certificate chain of the server certificate. This starts with the issuing CA certificate of the server certificate and can range up to the root CA certificate. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded CA Certificate files, usually in certificate chain order.

This should be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLCACertificatePath for explicitly constructing the server certificate chain which is sent to the browser in addition to the server certificate. It is especially useful to avoid conflicts with CA certificates when using client authentication. Because although placing a CA certificate of the server certificate chain into SSLCACertificatePath has the same effect for the certificate chain construction, it has the side-effect that client certificates issued by this same CA certificate are also accepted on client authentication.

But be careful: Providing the certificate chain works only if you are using a single RSA or DSA based server certificate. If you are using a coupled RSA+DSA certificate pair, this will work only if actually both certificates use the same certificate chain. Else the browsers will be confused in this situation.

Example

SSLCertificateChainFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/ca.crt

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SSLCertificateFile Directive

Description:Server PEM-encoded X.509 Certificate file
Syntax:SSLCertificateFile file-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:ECC support is available in Apache 2.2.26 and later

This directive points to the PEM-encoded Certificate file for the server and optionally also to the corresponding RSA or DSA Private Key file for it (contained in the same file). If the contained Private Key is encrypted the Pass Phrase dialog is forced at startup time. This directive can be used up to three times (referencing different filenames) when both a RSA, a DSA, and an ECC based server certificate is used in parallel.

Example

SSLCertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt

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SSLCertificateKeyFile Directive

Description:Server PEM-encoded Private Key file
Syntax:SSLCertificateKeyFile file-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:ECC support is available in Apache 2.2.26 and later

This directive points to the PEM-encoded Private Key file for the server. If the Private Key is not combined with the Certificate in the SSLCertificateFile, use this additional directive to point to the file with the stand-alone Private Key. When SSLCertificateFile is used and the file contains both the Certificate and the Private Key this directive need not be used. But we strongly discourage this practice. Instead we recommend you to separate the Certificate and the Private Key. If the contained Private Key is encrypted, the Pass Phrase dialog is forced at startup time. This directive can be used up to three times (referencing different filenames) when both a RSA, a DSA, and an ECC based private key is used in parallel.

Example

SSLCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.key/server.key

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SSLCipherSuite Directive

Description:Cipher Suite available for negotiation in SSL handshake
Syntax:SSLCipherSuite cipher-spec
Default:SSLCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This complex directive uses a colon-separated cipher-spec string consisting of OpenSSL cipher specifications to configure the Cipher Suite the client is permitted to negotiate in the SSL handshake phase. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotiation with the reconfigured Cipher Suite after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

An SSL cipher specification in cipher-spec is composed of 4 major attributes plus a few extra minor ones:

An SSL cipher can also be an export cipher and is either a SSLv2 or SSLv3/TLSv1 cipher (here TLSv1 is equivalent to SSLv3). To specify which ciphers to use, one can either specify all the Ciphers, one at a time, or use aliases to specify the preference and order for the ciphers (see Table 1).

Tag Description
Key Exchange Algorithm:
kRSA RSA key exchange
kDHr Diffie-Hellman key exchange with RSA key
kDHd Diffie-Hellman key exchange with DSA key
kEDH Ephemeral (temp.key) Diffie-Hellman key exchange (no cert)
Authentication Algorithm:
aNULL No authentication
aRSA RSA authentication
aDSS DSS authentication
aDH Diffie-Hellman authentication
Cipher Encoding Algorithm:
eNULL No encoding
DES DES encoding
3DES Triple-DES encoding
RC4 RC4 encoding
RC2 RC2 encoding
IDEA IDEA encoding
MAC Digest Algorithm:
MD5 MD5 hash function
SHA1 SHA1 hash function
SHA SHA hash function
Aliases:
SSLv2 all SSL version 2.0 ciphers
SSLv3 all SSL version 3.0 ciphers
TLSv1 all TLS version 1.0 ciphers
EXP all export ciphers
EXPORT40 all 40-bit export ciphers only
EXPORT56 all 56-bit export ciphers only
LOW all low strength ciphers (no export, single DES)
MEDIUM all ciphers with 128 bit encryption
HIGH all ciphers using Triple-DES
RSA all ciphers using RSA key exchange
DH all ciphers using Diffie-Hellman key exchange
EDH all ciphers using Ephemeral Diffie-Hellman key exchange
ADH all ciphers using Anonymous Diffie-Hellman key exchange
DSS all ciphers using DSS authentication
NULL all ciphers using no encryption

Now where this becomes interesting is that these can be put together to specify the order and ciphers you wish to use. To speed this up there are also aliases (SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, EXP, LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH) for certain groups of ciphers. These tags can be joined together with prefixes to form the cipher-spec. Available prefixes are:

A simpler way to look at all of this is to use the ``openssl ciphers -v'' command which provides a nice way to successively create the correct cipher-spec string. The default cipher-spec string is ``ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP'' which means the following: first, remove from consideration any ciphers that do not authenticate, i.e. for SSL only the Anonymous Diffie-Hellman ciphers. Next, use ciphers using RC4 and RSA. Next include the high, medium and then the low security ciphers. Finally pull all SSLv2 and export ciphers to the end of the list.

$ openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP'
NULL-SHA                SSLv3 Kx=RSA      Au=RSA  Enc=None      Mac=SHA1
NULL-MD5                SSLv3 Kx=RSA      Au=RSA  Enc=None      Mac=MD5
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA    SSLv3 Kx=DH       Au=RSA  Enc=3DES(168) Mac=SHA1
...                     ...               ...     ...           ...
EXP-RC4-MD5             SSLv3 Kx=RSA(512) Au=RSA  Enc=RC4(40)   Mac=MD5  export
EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5         SSLv2 Kx=RSA(512) Au=RSA  Enc=RC2(40)   Mac=MD5  export
EXP-RC4-MD5             SSLv2 Kx=RSA(512) Au=RSA  Enc=RC4(40)   Mac=MD5  export

The complete list of particular RSA & DH ciphers for SSL is given in Table 2.

Example

SSLCipherSuite RSA:!EXP:!NULL:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:-LOW

Cipher-Tag Protocol Key Ex. Auth. Enc. MAC Type
RSA Ciphers:
DES-CBC3-SHA SSLv3 RSA RSA 3DES(168) SHA1
DES-CBC3-MD5 SSLv2 RSA RSA 3DES(168) MD5
IDEA-CBC-SHA SSLv3 RSA RSA IDEA(128) SHA1
RC4-SHA SSLv3 RSA RSA RC4(128) SHA1
RC4-MD5 SSLv3 RSA RSA RC4(128) MD5
IDEA-CBC-MD5 SSLv2 RSA RSA IDEA(128) MD5
RC2-CBC-MD5 SSLv2 RSA RSA RC2(128) MD5
RC4-MD5 SSLv2 RSA RSA RC4(128) MD5
DES-CBC-SHA SSLv3 RSA RSA DES(56) SHA1
RC4-64-MD5 SSLv2 RSA RSA RC4(64) MD5
DES-CBC-MD5 SSLv2 RSA RSA DES(56) MD5
EXP-DES-CBC-SHA SSLv3 RSA(512) RSA DES(40) SHA1 export
EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5 SSLv3 RSA(512) RSA RC2(40) MD5 export
EXP-RC4-MD5 SSLv3 RSA(512) RSA RC4(40) MD5 export
EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5 SSLv2 RSA(512) RSA RC2(40) MD5 export
EXP-RC4-MD5 SSLv2 RSA(512) RSA RC4(40) MD5 export
NULL-SHA SSLv3 RSA RSA None SHA1
NULL-MD5 SSLv3 RSA RSA None MD5
Diffie-Hellman Ciphers:
ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA SSLv3 DH None 3DES(168) SHA1
ADH-DES-CBC-SHA SSLv3 DH None DES(56) SHA1
ADH-RC4-MD5 SSLv3 DH None RC4(128) MD5
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA SSLv3 DH RSA 3DES(168) SHA1
EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA SSLv3 DH DSS 3DES(168) SHA1
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA SSLv3 DH RSA DES(56) SHA1
EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA SSLv3 DH DSS DES(56) SHA1
EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA SSLv3 DH(512) RSA DES(40) SHA1 export
EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA SSLv3 DH(512) DSS DES(40) SHA1 export
EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA SSLv3 DH(512) None DES(40) SHA1 export
EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5 SSLv3 DH(512) None RC4(40) MD5 export
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SSLCompression Directive

Description:Enable compression on the SSL level
Syntax:SSLCompression on|off
Default:SSLCompression off
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:Available in httpd 2.2.24 and later, if using OpenSSL 0.9.8 or later; virtual host scope available if using OpenSSL 1.0.0 or later. The default used to be on in versions 2.2.24 to 2.2.25.

This directive allows to enable compression on the SSL level.

Enabling compression causes security issues in most setups (the so called CRIME attack).

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SSLCryptoDevice Directive

Description:Enable use of a cryptographic hardware accelerator
Syntax:SSLCryptoDevice engine
Default:SSLCryptoDevice builtin
Context:server config
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:Available in Apache 2.1 and later, if using -engine flavor of OpenSSL 0.9.6, or OpenSSL 0.9.7 or later

This directive enables use of a cryptographic hardware accelerator board to offload some of the SSL processing overhead. This directive can only be used if the SSL toolkit is built with "engine" support; OpenSSL 0.9.7 and later releases have "engine" support by default, the separate "-engine" releases of OpenSSL 0.9.6 must be used.

To discover which engine names are supported, run the command "openssl engine".

Example

# For a Broadcom accelerator:
SSLCryptoDevice ubsec

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SSLEngine Directive

Description:SSL Engine Operation Switch
Syntax:SSLEngine on|off|optional
Default:SSLEngine off
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive toggles the usage of the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine. This should be used inside a <VirtualHost> section to enable SSL/TLS for a that virtual host. By default the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine is disabled for both the main server and all configured virtual hosts.

Example

<VirtualHost _default_:443>
SSLEngine on
...
</VirtualHost>

In Apache 2.1 and later, SSLEngine can be set to optional. This enables support for RFC 2817, Upgrading to TLS Within HTTP/1.1. At this time no web browsers support RFC 2817.

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SSLFIPS Directive

Description:SSL FIPS mode Switch
Syntax:SSLFIPS on|off
Default:SSLFIPS off
Context:server config
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive toggles the usage of the SSL library FIPS_mode flag. It must be set in the global server context and cannot be configured with conflicting settings (SSLFIPS on followed by SSLFIPS off or similar). The mode applies to all SSL library operations.

If httpd was compiled against an SSL library which did not support the FIPS_mode flag, SSLFIPS on will fail. Refer to the FIPS 140-2 Security Policy document of the SSL provider library for specific requirements to use mod_ssl in a FIPS 140-2 approved mode of operation; note that mod_ssl itself is not validated, but may be described as using FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic module, when all components are assembled and operated under the guidelines imposed by the applicable Security Policy.

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SSLHonorCipherOrder Directive

Description:Option to prefer the server's cipher preference order
Syntax:SSLHonorCipherOrder flag
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:Available in Apache 2.1 and later, if using OpenSSL 0.9.7 or later

When choosing a cipher during an SSLv3 or TLSv1 handshake, normally the client's preference is used. If this directive is enabled, the server's preference will be used instead.

Example

SSLHonorCipherOrder on

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SSLInsecureRenegotiation Directive

Description:Option to enable support for insecure renegotiation
Syntax:SSLInsecureRenegotiation flag
Default:SSLInsecureRenegotiation off
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:Available in httpd 2.2.15 and later, if using OpenSSL 0.9.8m or later

As originally specified, all versions of the SSL and TLS protocols (up to and including TLS/1.2) were vulnerable to a Man-in-the-Middle attack (CVE-2009-3555) during a renegotiation. This vulnerability allowed an attacker to "prefix" a chosen plaintext to the HTTP request as seen by the web server. A protocol extension was developed which fixed this vulnerability if supported by both client and server.

If mod_ssl is linked against OpenSSL version 0.9.8m or later, by default renegotiation is only supported with clients supporting the new protocol extension. If this directive is enabled, renegotiation will be allowed with old (unpatched) clients, albeit insecurely.

Security warning

If this directive is enabled, SSL connections will be vulnerable to the Man-in-the-Middle prefix attack as described in CVE-2009-3555.

Example

SSLInsecureRenegotiation on

The SSL_SECURE_RENEG environment variable can be used from an SSI or CGI script to determine whether secure renegotiation is supported for a given SSL connection.

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SSLMutex Directive

Description:Semaphore for internal mutual exclusion of operations
Syntax:SSLMutex type
Default:SSLMutex none
Context:server config
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This configures the SSL engine's semaphore (aka. lock) which is used for mutual exclusion of operations which have to be done in a synchronized way between the pre-forked Apache server processes. This directive can only be used in the global server context because it's only useful to have one global mutex. This directive is designed to closely match the AcceptMutex directive.

The following Mutex types are available:

Example

SSLMutex file:/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_mutex

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SSLOptions Directive

Description:Configure various SSL engine run-time options
Syntax:SSLOptions [+|-]option ...
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:Options
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive can be used to control various run-time options on a per-directory basis. Normally, if multiple SSLOptions could apply to a directory, then the most specific one is taken completely; the options are not merged. However if all the options on the SSLOptions directive are preceded by a plus (+) or minus (-) symbol, the options are merged. Any options preceded by a + are added to the options currently in force, and any options preceded by a - are removed from the options currently in force.

The available options are:

Example

SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth -StrictRequire
<Files ~ "\.(cgi|shtml)$">
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars -ExportCertData
<Files>

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SSLPassPhraseDialog Directive

Description:Type of pass phrase dialog for encrypted private keys
Syntax:SSLPassPhraseDialog type
Default:SSLPassPhraseDialog builtin
Context:server config
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

When Apache starts up it has to read the various Certificate (see SSLCertificateFile) and Private Key (see SSLCertificateKeyFile) files of the SSL-enabled virtual servers. Because for security reasons the Private Key files are usually encrypted, mod_ssl needs to query the administrator for a Pass Phrase in order to decrypt those files. This query can be done in two ways which can be configured by type:

Example

SSLPassPhraseDialog exec:/usr/local/apache/sbin/pp-filter

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SSLProtocol Directive

Description:Configure usable SSL protocol flavors
Syntax:SSLProtocol [+|-]protocol ...
Default:SSLProtocol all
Context:server config, virtual host
Override:Options
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive can be used to control the SSL protocol flavors mod_ssl should use when establishing its server environment. Clients then can only connect with one of the provided protocols.

The available (case-insensitive) protocols are:

Example

# enable SSLv3 and all available TLSv1 flavors, but not SSLv2
SSLProtocol All -SSLv2

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SSLProxyCACertificateFile Directive

Description:File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Remote Server Auth
Syntax:SSLProxyCACertificateFile file-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CA) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used for Remote Server Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded Certificate files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLProxyCACertificatePath.

Example

SSLProxyCACertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle-remote-server.crt

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SSLProxyCACertificatePath Directive

Description:Directory of PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Remote Server Auth
Syntax:SSLProxyCACertificatePath directory-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used to verify the remote server certificate on Remote Server Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you can't just place the Certificate files there: you also have to create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links.

Example

SSLProxyCACertificatePath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/

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SSLProxyCARevocationFile Directive

Description:File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Remote Server Auth
Syntax:SSLProxyCARevocationFile file-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CA) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used for Remote Server Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded CRL files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLProxyCARevocationPath.

Example

SSLProxyCARevocationFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/ca-bundle-remote-server.crl

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SSLProxyCARevocationPath Directive

Description:Directory of PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Remote Server Auth
Syntax:SSLProxyCARevocationPath directory-path
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used to revoke the remote server certificate on Remote Server Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you have not only to place the CRL files there. Additionally you have to create symbolic links named hash-value.rN. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links.

Example

SSLProxyCARevocationPath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/

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SSLProxyCheckPeerCN Directive

Description:Whether to check the remote server certificates CN field
Syntax:SSLProxyCheckPeerCN on|off
Default:SSLProxyCheckPeerCN off
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets whether the remote server certificates CN field is compared against the hostname of the request URL. If both are not equal a 502 status code (Bad Gateway) is sent.

Example

SSLProxyCheckPeerCN on

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SSLProxyCheckPeerExpire Directive

Description:Whether to check if remote server certificate is expired
Syntax:SSLProxyCheckPeerExpire on|off
Default:SSLProxyCheckPeerExpire off
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets whether it is checked if the remote server certificate is expired or not. If the check fails a 502 status code (Bad Gateway) is sent.

Example

SSLProxyCheckPeerExpire on

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SSLProxyCipherSuite Directive

Description:Cipher Suite available for negotiation in SSL proxy handshake
Syntax:SSLProxyCipherSuite cipher-spec
Default:SSLProxyCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

Equivalent to SSLCipherSuite, but for the proxy connection. Please refer to SSLCipherSuite for additional information.

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SSLProxyEngine Directive

Description:SSL Proxy Engine Operation Switch
Syntax:SSLProxyEngine on|off
Default:SSLProxyEngine off
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive toggles the usage of the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine for proxy. This is usually used inside a <VirtualHost> section to enable SSL/TLS for proxy usage in a particular virtual host. By default the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine is disabled for proxy both for the main server and all configured virtual hosts.

Note that the SSLProxyEngine directive should not, in general, be included in a virtual host that will be acting as a forward proxy (using <Proxy> or <ProxyRequest> directives. SSLProxyEngine is not required to enable a forward proxy server to proxy SSL/TLS requests.

Example

<VirtualHost _default_:443>
SSLProxyEngine on
...
</VirtualHost>

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SSLProxyMachineCertificateChainFile Directive

Description:File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA certificates to be used by the proxy for choosing a certificate
Syntax:SSLProxyMachineCertificateChainFile filename
Context:server config
Override:Not applicable
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:Available in Apache 2.2.23 and later

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you keep the certificate chain for all of the client certs in use. This directive will be needed if the remote server presents a list of CA certificates that are not direct signers of one of the configured client certificates.

This referenced file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded certificate files. Upon startup, each client certificate configured will be examined and a chain of trust will be constructed.

Security warning

If this directive is enabled, all of the certificates in the file will be trusted as if they were also in SSLProxyCACertificateFile.

Example

SSLProxyMachineCertificateChainFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/proxyCA.pem

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SSLProxyMachineCertificateFile Directive

Description:File of concatenated PEM-encoded client certificates and keys to be used by the proxy
Syntax:SSLProxyMachineCertificateFile filename
Context:server config
Override:Not applicable
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you keep the certificates and keys used for authentication of the proxy server to remote servers.

This referenced file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded certificate files, in order of preference. Use this directive alternatively or additionally to SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath.

Currently there is no support for encrypted private keys

Example

SSLProxyMachineCertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/proxy.pem

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SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath Directive

Description:Directory of PEM-encoded client certificates and keys to be used by the proxy
Syntax:SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath directory
Context:server config
Override:Not applicable
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the certificates and keys used for authentication of the proxy server to remote servers.

The files in this directory must be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. Additionally, you must create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links.

Currently there is no support for encrypted private keys

Example

SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath /usr/local/apache2/conf/proxy.crt/

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SSLProxyProtocol Directive

Description:Configure usable SSL protocol flavors for proxy usage
Syntax:SSLProxyProtocol [+|-]protocol ...
Default:SSLProxyProtocol all
Context:server config, virtual host
Override:Options
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive can be used to control the SSL protocol flavors mod_ssl should use when establishing its server environment for proxy . It will only connect to servers using one of the provided protocols.

Please refer to SSLProtocol for additional information.

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SSLProxyVerify Directive

Description:Type of remote server Certificate verification
Syntax:SSLProxyVerify level
Default:SSLProxyVerify none
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

When a proxy is configured to forward requests to a remote SSL server, this directive can be used to configure certificate verification of the remote server.

Note that even when certificate verification is enabled, mod_ssl does not check whether the commonName (hostname) attribute of the server certificate matches the hostname used to connect to the server. In other words, the proxy does not guarantee that the SSL connection to the backend server is "secure" beyond the fact that the certificate is signed by one of the CAs configured using the SSLProxyCACertificatePath and/or SSLProxyCACertificateFile directives. In order to get this check done please have a look at SSLProxyCheckPeerCN and SSLProxyCheckPeerExpire directives which are off by default.

The following levels are available for level:

In practice only levels none and require are really interesting, because level optional doesn't work with all servers and level optional_no_ca is actually against the idea of authentication (but can be used to establish SSL test pages, etc.)

Example

SSLProxyVerify require

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SSLProxyVerifyDepth Directive

Description:Maximum depth of CA Certificates in Remote Server Certificate verification
Syntax:SSLProxyVerifyDepth number
Default:SSLProxyVerifyDepth 1
Context:server config, virtual host
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets how deeply mod_ssl should verify before deciding that the remote server does not have a valid certificate.

The depth actually is the maximum number of intermediate certificate issuers, i.e. the number of CA certificates which are max allowed to be followed while verifying the remote server certificate. A depth of 0 means that self-signed remote server certificates are accepted only, the default depth of 1 means the remote server certificate can be self-signed or has to be signed by a CA which is directly known to the server (i.e. the CA's certificate is under SSLProxyCACertificatePath), etc.

Example

SSLProxyVerifyDepth 10

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SSLRandomSeed Directive

Description:Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) seeding source
Syntax:SSLRandomSeed context source [bytes]
Context:server config
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This configures one or more sources for seeding the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) in OpenSSL at startup time (context is startup) and/or just before a new SSL connection is established (context is connect). This directive can only be used in the global server context because the PRNG is a global facility.

The following source variants are available:

Example

SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/random
SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom 1024
SSLRandomSeed startup exec:/usr/local/bin/truerand 16
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/random
SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/urandom 1024

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SSLRenegBufferSize Directive

Description:Set the size for the SSL renegotiation buffer
Syntax:SSLRenegBufferSize bytes
Default:SSLRenegBufferSize 131072
Context:directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

If an SSL renegotiation is required in per-location context, for example, any use of SSLVerifyClient in a Directory or Location block, then mod_ssl must buffer any HTTP request body into memory until the new SSL handshake can be performed. This directive can be used to set the amount of memory that will be used for this buffer.

Note that in many configurations, the client sending the request body will be untrusted so a denial of service attack by consumption of memory must be considered when changing this configuration setting.

Example

SSLRenegBufferSize 262144

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SSLRequire Directive

Description:Allow access only when an arbitrarily complex boolean expression is true
Syntax:SSLRequire expression
Context:directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive specifies a general access requirement which has to be fulfilled in order to allow access. It is a very powerful directive because the requirement specification is an arbitrarily complex boolean expression containing any number of access checks.

The implementation of SSLRequire is not thread safe. Using SSLRequire inside .htaccess files on a threaded MPM may cause random crashes.

The expression must match the following syntax (given as a BNF grammar notation):

expr     ::= "true" | "false"
           | "!" expr
           | expr "&&" expr
           | expr "||" expr
           | "(" expr ")"
           | comp

comp     ::= word "==" word | word "eq" word
           | word "!=" word | word "ne" word
           | word "<"  word | word "lt" word
           | word "<=" word | word "le" word
           | word ">"  word | word "gt" word
           | word ">=" word | word "ge" word
           | word "in" "{" wordlist "}"
           | word "in" "OID(" word ")"
           | word "=~" regex
           | word "!~" regex

wordlist ::= word
           | wordlist "," word

word     ::= digit
           | cstring
           | variable
           | function

digit    ::= [0-9]+
cstring  ::= "..."
variable ::= "%{" varname "}"
function ::= funcname "(" funcargs ")"

while for varname any variable from Table 3 can be used. Finally for funcname the following functions are available:

Notice that expression is first parsed into an internal machine representation and then evaluated in a second step. Actually, in Global and Per-Server Class context expression is parsed at startup time and at runtime only the machine representation is executed. For Per-Directory context, specifically in a .htaccess context, this is different: here expression has to be parsed and immediately executed for every request.

Example

SSLRequire ( %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)-/ \
and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20 ) \
or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/

The OID() function expects to find zero or more instances of the given OID in the client certificate, and compares the left-hand side string against the value of matching OID attributes. Every matching OID is checked, until a match is found.

Standard CGI/1.0 and Apache variables:

HTTP_USER_AGENT        PATH_INFO             AUTH_TYPE
HTTP_REFERER           QUERY_STRING          SERVER_SOFTWARE
HTTP_COOKIE            REMOTE_HOST           API_VERSION
HTTP_FORWARDED         REMOTE_IDENT          TIME_YEAR
HTTP_HOST              IS_SUBREQ             TIME_MON
HTTP_PROXY_CONNECTION  DOCUMENT_ROOT         TIME_DAY
HTTP_ACCEPT            SERVER_ADMIN          TIME_HOUR
HTTP:headername        SERVER_NAME           TIME_MIN
THE_REQUEST            SERVER_PORT           TIME_SEC
REQUEST_METHOD         SERVER_PROTOCOL       TIME_WDAY
REQUEST_SCHEME         REMOTE_ADDR           TIME
REQUEST_URI            REMOTE_USER           ENV:variablename
REQUEST_FILENAME

SSL-related variables:

HTTPS                  SSL_CLIENT_M_VERSION   SSL_SERVER_M_VERSION
                       SSL_CLIENT_M_SERIAL    SSL_SERVER_M_SERIAL
SSL_PROTOCOL           SSL_CLIENT_V_START     SSL_SERVER_V_START
SSL_SESSION_ID         SSL_CLIENT_V_END       SSL_SERVER_V_END
SSL_CIPHER             SSL_CLIENT_S_DN        SSL_SERVER_S_DN
SSL_CIPHER_EXPORT      SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_C      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_C
SSL_CIPHER_ALGKEYSIZE  SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_ST     SSL_SERVER_S_DN_ST
SSL_CIPHER_USEKEYSIZE  SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_L      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_L
SSL_VERSION_LIBRARY    SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_O
SSL_VERSION_INTERFACE  SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU     SSL_SERVER_S_DN_OU
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_CN     SSL_SERVER_S_DN_CN
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_T      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_T
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_I      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_I
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_G      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_G
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_S      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_S
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_D      SSL_SERVER_S_DN_D
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_UID    SSL_SERVER_S_DN_UID
                       SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_Email  SSL_SERVER_S_DN_Email
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN        SSL_SERVER_I_DN
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_C      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_C
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_ST     SSL_SERVER_I_DN_ST
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_L      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_L
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_O      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_O
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_OU     SSL_SERVER_I_DN_OU
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_CN     SSL_SERVER_I_DN_CN
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_T      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_T
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_I      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_I
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_G      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_G
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_S      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_S
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_D      SSL_SERVER_I_DN_D
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_UID    SSL_SERVER_I_DN_UID
                       SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_Email  SSL_SERVER_I_DN_Email
                       SSL_CLIENT_A_SIG       SSL_SERVER_A_SIG
                       SSL_CLIENT_A_KEY       SSL_SERVER_A_KEY
                       SSL_CLIENT_CERT        SSL_SERVER_CERT
                       SSL_CLIENT_CERT_CHAIN_n
                       SSL_CLIENT_VERIFY      SSL_TLS_SNI
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SSLRequireSSL Directive

Description:Deny access when SSL is not used for the HTTP request
Syntax:SSLRequireSSL
Context:directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive forbids access unless HTTP over SSL (i.e. HTTPS) is enabled for the current connection. This is very handy inside the SSL-enabled virtual host or directories for defending against configuration errors that expose stuff that should be protected. When this directive is present all requests are denied which are not using SSL.

Example

SSLRequireSSL

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SSLSessionCache Directive

Description:Type of the global/inter-process SSL Session Cache
Syntax:SSLSessionCache type
Default:SSLSessionCache none
Context:server config
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This configures the storage type of the global/inter-process SSL Session Cache. This cache is an optional facility which speeds up parallel request processing. For requests to the same server process (via HTTP keep-alive), OpenSSL already caches the SSL session information locally. But because modern clients request inlined images and other data via parallel requests (usually up to four parallel requests are common) those requests are served by different pre-forked server processes. Here an inter-process cache helps to avoid unnecessary session handshakes.

The following four storage types are currently supported:

Examples

SSLSessionCache dbm:/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_gcache_data
SSLSessionCache shm:/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_gcache_data(512000)

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SSLSessionCacheTimeout Directive

Description:Number of seconds before an SSL session expires in the Session Cache
Syntax:SSLSessionCacheTimeout seconds
Default:SSLSessionCacheTimeout 300
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:Applies also to RFC 5077 TLS session resumption in Apache 2.2.28 and later

This directive sets the timeout in seconds for the information stored in the global/inter-process SSL Session Cache, the OpenSSL internal memory cache and for sessions resumed by TLS session resumption (RFC 5077). It can be set as low as 15 for testing, but should be set to higher values like 300 in real life.

Example

SSLSessionCacheTimeout 600

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SSLStrictSNIVHostCheck Directive

Description:Whether to allow non SNI clients to access a name based virtual host.
Syntax:SSLStrictSNIVHostCheck on|off
Default:SSLStrictSNIVHostCheck off
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:Available in Apache 2.2.12 and later

This directive sets whether a non SNI client is allowed to access a name based virtual host. If set to on in the non default name based virtual host, non SNI clients are not allowed to access this particular virtual host. If set to on in the default name based virtual host, non SNI clients are not allowed to access any name based virtual host belonging to this IP / port combination.

This option is only available if httpd was compiled against an SNI capable version of OpenSSL.

Example

SSLStrictSNIVHostCheck on

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SSLUserName Directive

Description:Variable name to determine user name
Syntax:SSLUserName varname
Context:server config, directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl
Compatibility:Available in Apache 2.0.51 and later

This directive sets the "user" field in the Apache request object. This is used by lower modules to identify the user with a character string. In particular, this may cause the environment variable REMOTE_USER to be set. The varname can be any of the SSL environment variables.

Note that this directive has no effect if the FakeBasicAuth option is used (see SSLOptions).

Example

SSLUserName SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_CN

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SSLVerifyClient Directive

Description:Type of Client Certificate verification
Syntax:SSLVerifyClient level
Default:SSLVerifyClient none
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets the Certificate verification level for the Client Authentication. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the client authentication process used in the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotiation with the reconfigured client verification level after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

The following levels are available for level:

In practice only levels none and require are really interesting, because level optional doesn't work with all browsers and level optional_no_ca is actually against the idea of authentication (but can be used to establish SSL test pages, etc.)

Example

SSLVerifyClient require

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SSLVerifyDepth Directive

Description:Maximum depth of CA Certificates in Client Certificate verification
Syntax:SSLVerifyDepth number
Default:SSLVerifyDepth 1
Context:server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Override:AuthConfig
Status:Extension
Module:mod_ssl

This directive sets how deeply mod_ssl should verify before deciding that the clients don't have a valid certificate. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the client authentication process used in the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotiation with the reconfigured client verification depth after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

The depth actually is the maximum number of intermediate certificate issuers, i.e. the number of CA certificates which are max allowed to be followed while verifying the client certificate. A depth of 0 means that self-signed client certificates are accepted only, the default depth of 1 means the client certificate can be self-signed or has to be signed by a CA which is directly known to the server (i.e. the CA's certificate is under SSLCACertificatePath), etc.

Example

SSLVerifyDepth 10

Available Languages:  en 

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Comments

Notice:
This is not a Q&A section. Comments placed here should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either implemented or considered invalid/off-topic. Questions on how to manage the Apache HTTP Server should be directed at either our IRC channel, #httpd, on Freenode, or sent to our mailing lists.